Basic Electronics Questions – Set 1

1. Insights of an inverter. Explain the working?
2. Insights of a 2 input NOR gate. Explain the working?
3. Insights of a 2 input NAND gate. Explain the working?
4. Implement F= not (AB+CD) using CMOS gates?
5. Insights of a pass gate. Explain the working?
6. Why do we need both PMOS and NMOS transistors to implement a pass gate?
7. What does the above code synthesize to?
8. Cross section of a PMOS transistor?
9. Cross section of an NMOS transistor?
10. What is a D-latch? Write the VHDL Code for it?
11. What happens when the gate oxide is very thin?
12. What is setup time and hold time?
13. Write a pseudo code for sorting the numbers in an array?
14.What is pipelining and how can we increase throughput using pipelining?
15. Explain about stuck at fault models, scan design, BIST and IDDQ testing?
16. What is SPICE?
17. Differences between IRSIM and SPICE?
18. Differences between netlist of HSPICE and Spectre?
19. What is FPGA?
20. Draw the Cross Section of an Inverter? Clearly show all the connections between M1 and poly, M1 and diffusion layers etc?
21. What is LVS, DRC?
22. Who provides the DRC rules?
23. What is validation?
24. What is Cross Talk?
25. Different ways of implementing a comparator?
26. What r the phenomenon which come into play when the devices are scaled to the sub-micron lengths?
27. What is clock feed through?
28. Implement an Inverter using a single transistor?
29. What is Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling?
30. Insights of a Tri-state inverter?
31. If an/ap = 0.5, an/ap = 1, an/ap = 3, for 3 inverters draw the transfer characteristics?
32. Differences between Array and Booth Multipliers?
33. Explain the concept of a Clock Divider Circuit? Write a VHDL code for the same?
34. Which gate is normally preferred while implementing circuits using CMOS logic, NAND or NOR? Why?
35. Insights of a Tri-State Inverter?
36. Basic Stuff related to Perl?
37. Have you studied buses? What types?
38. Have you studied pipelining? List the 5 stages of a 5 stage pipeline. Assuming 1 clock per stage, what is the latency of an instruction in a 5 stage machine? What is the throughput of this machine ?
39.How many bit combinations are there in a byte?
40. For a single computer processor computer system, what is the purpose of a processor cache and describe its operation?
41. Explain the operation considering a two processor computer system with a cache for each processor.
42. What are the main issues associated with multiprocessor caches and how might you solve them?
43. Explain the difference between write through and write back cache.
44. Are you familiar with the term MESI?
45. Are you familiar with the term snooping?
46. Describe a finite state machine that will detect three consecutive coin tosses (of one coin) that results in heads.
47. In what cases do you need to double clock a signal before presenting it to a synchronous state machine?
48. You have a driver that drives a long signal & connects to an input device. At the input device there is either overshoot, undershoot or signal threshold violations, what can be done to correct this problem?
49. What are the total number of lines written by you in C/C++? What is the most complicated/valuable program written in C/C++?
50. What compiler was used?

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